Whether the functional divergences are primarily due to adaptive selection pressure or relaxed selective constraint remains an open question.As such, this study aims to address the evolutionary mode of Fox O, which may lead to the functional divergence.A multiprocessor system includes a number of sub-processor systems, each substantially identically constructed, and each comprising a central processing unit (CPU), and at least one I/O device, interconnected by routing apparatus that also interconnects the sub-processor systems. A multiprocessor system includes a number of sub-processor systems, each substantially identically constructed, and each comprising a central processing unit (CPU), and at least one I/O device, interconnected by routing apparatus that also interconnects the sub-processor systems.A CPU of any one of the sub-processor systems may communicate, through the routing elements, with any I/O device of the system, or with any CPU of the system.Further, the system is structured to exhibit fault tolerant capability. Swarz, "The Theory and Practice of Reliable System Design," Digital Press, 1982, and A. The first commercial fault tolerant machines were introduced by Tandem Computers in the 1970's for use in on-line transaction processing applications (J. Eighth Symposium on Operating System Principles, pp. Serlin, "Fault- Tolerant Systems in Commercial Applications,"Computer, pp. Current commercial fault tolerant systems include distributed memory multi-processors, shared-memory transaction based systems, "pair-and-spare" hardware fault tolerant systems (see R. Most applications of commercial fault tolerant computers fall into the category of on-line transaction processing.Present day fault tolerant computing evolved from specialized military and commllnications systems to general purpose high availability commercial systems. Freiburghouse, "Making Processing Fail-safe," Mini-micro Systems, pp. Financial institutions require high availability for electronic funds transfer, control of automatic teller machines, and stock market trading systems.Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies make genotyping by sequencing (GBS) more feasible for molecular characterization of plant germplasm with complex and unsequenced genomes.
The CPUs (20, 22, 24 and 26) include a request process (133) and a storage process (130).
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CPUs and I/O devices may write to, or read from, memory of a CPU of the system. Laprie, eds., "The Evolution of Fault Tolerant Computing," Vienna: Springer-Verlag, 1987). Draper Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion laboratory began to apply fault tolerance to the development of guidance computers for aerospace applications.
Memory protection is provided by an access validation method maintained by each CPU in which CPUs and/or I/O devices are provided with a validation to read/write memory of that CPU, without which memory access is denied. A multiple processing system, comprising: a plurality of central processing units;a plurality of input/output devices; and a network interconnecting the central processing units and the input/output devices so that any one of the central processing units has communicative access to any one of the input/output devices without requiring use of any other of the plurality of central processing units. 10577-282 FAIL-FAST, FAIL-FUNCTIONAL, FAULT-TOLERANT MULTIPROCESSOR SYSTEM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTIONThe present invention is directed generally to data processing systems, and more particularly to a multiple processing system and a reliable system area network that provides connectivity for interprocessor and input/output communication. The earliest high availability systems were developed in the 1950's by IBM, Univac, and Remington Rand for military applications. The 1960's also saw the development of the first AT&T electronic switching systems. Several other commercial fault tolerant systems were introduced in the 1980's (O. 4,907,228 is also an example of this pair-and-spare technique, and the shared-memory transaction based system.), and triple-modular-re~n~nt systems such as the "Integrity" computing system manufactured by Tandem Computers Incorporated of Cupertino, California, assignee of this application and the invention disclosed herein.